Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics


This book is written by Y.V.C. Rao

What is  Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics?

Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics deals with the basic concepts of thermodynamics and their applications. It not only introduces thermodynamic potentials as partial Legendre transforms of internal energy, but also deals with a number of advanced methods used for predicting thermodynamic properties, fugacity, fugacity coefficients and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data using generalized equations of state and the UNIFAC methods.

The book will serve as a core textbook for the course on chemical engineering thermodynamics for undergraduate students of chemical engineering and chemical technology, and also as a reference book for graduate students and practising engineers.

About Author

Prof. Y V C Rao obtained his B.Tech. degree in Chemical Engineering from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, and his M.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. At IIT Kanpur, Prof. Rao has been teaching thermodynamics at all levels - core, undergraduate, professional and postgraduate - since 1973. He has published several research papers in national and international journals in the areas of thermodynamics, molecular energy transfer and shock waves, and presented several papers in national and international conferences. In addition to this book, he has published three other books on thermodynamics. Prof. Rao was a Fulbright visiting research scholar at the Columbia University, New York, and is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers and the Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Content of the book

Preface
Nomenclature

I. INTRODUCTION :
1. What is Thermodynamics?
2. Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches
3. International System of Units :
i. Base Units
ii. Derived Units
iii. Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units
iv. Convention for Writing Quantities and Units

4. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

II. BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS :
1. System
2. Property
3. Energy
4. Equilibrium
5. Reversible Process
6. Work
7. Heat
8. State Postulate
9. Temperature Scale
10. International Practical Temperature Scale
11. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

III. P-v-T RELATIONS OF FLUIDS
1. Phase
2. Graphical Representation of P-v-T behavior
3. Mathematical Representation of P-v-T Behavior :
i. Ideal Gas Law
ii. Van Der Waals Equation of State
iii. Beattie-Bridgman Equation of State
iv. Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State
v. Redlich-Kwong Equation of State
vi. Virial Equation of State
vii. Law of Corresponding States

4. Generalized Compressibility Factor Correlation
5. Generalized Equations of State :
i. Generalized Redlich-Kwong Equation of State
ii. Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State
iii. Peng-Robinson Equation of State
iv. Lee-Kesler Method
v. Generalized Virial Coefficient Correlation

6. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

IV. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS :
1. First law of thermodynamics
2. Consequences of the First Law of Thermodynamics
3. Control-mass Analysis :
i. Constant Volume (Isometric) Process
ii. Constant Pressure (Isobaric) Process
iii. Adiabatic Process :
a. Examples of Irreversible Adiabatic Processes
iv. Constant Internal Energy Process
v. Constant Temperature (Isothermal) Process
vi. Polytropic Process

4. Control-mass Analysis of Transient Flow Processes :
i. Charging of a Tank
ii. Discharging of a Tank

5. Control-volume Analysis
6. Throttling process
7. Control-volume Analysis of Transient Flow Processes :
i. Charging of a Tank
ii. Discharging of a Tank

8. Chemically Reacting Systems :
i. Notation for a Chemical Reaction
ii. Standard Enthalpy Change of a Chemical Reaction
iii. Standard Enthalpy of Formation
iv. Standard Enthalpy Change of Combustion
v. Effect of Temperature on the Standard Enthalpy Change of a Reaction
vi. Adiabatic Flame Temperature
9. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

V. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS :
1. Limitations of the First Law of Thermodynamics
2. Heat Engine and Heat Pump/Refrigerator
3. Second Law of Thermodynamics :
i. Kelvin-Planck Statement
ii. Clausius Statement

4. Criterion for Irreversibility
5. Carnot Cycle and Carnot Theorems
6. Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
7. Clausius Inequality
8. Entropy and its Calculation :
i. Entropy Change for an Ideal Gas
ii. Entropy Change for Mixing of Non-identical Ideal Gases

9. Principle of Entropy Increase
10. Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control-volume
11. Isentropic Efficiency
12. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

VI. THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIALS :
1. Postulates
2. Intensive Properties
3. Criteria of Equilibrium :
i. Criterion of Thermal Equilibrium
ii. Criterion of Mechanical equilibrium
iii. Criterion of Chemical Equilibrium

4. Euler Relation
5. Gibbs-Duhem Relation
6. Legendre Transformation
7. Internal Energy
8. Enthalpy
9. Helmholtz Free Energy
10. Gibbs Free Energy
11. Energy Minimum Principle
12. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

VII. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS :
1. Mathematical Preliminaries
2. Maxwell Relations
3. Internal Energy :
i. Partial Derivatives Method
ii. Jacobian Method

4. Enthalpy :
i. Partial Derivatives Method

5. Entropy :
i. Partial Derivatives Method
ii. Jacobian Method

6. Difference between Heat Capacities
7. Joule-Thomson Coefficient
8. General Derivatives
9. Bridgman Table
10. Clapeyron Equation and Latent Heat of Vaporization
11. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

VIII. Thermodynamic Properties of Real Gases :
1. Thermodynamic Properties of an Ideal Gas
2. Departure Functions
3. Evaluation of Departure Functions from Equations of State
4. Evaluation of Departure Functions from Generalized Equations of State
5. Evaluation of Departure Functions from Compressibility Factor Correlation
6. Departure Functions from Virial Coefficient Correlation
7. Thermodynamic Property Tables and Diagrams
8. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

IX. MULTICOMPONENT MIXTURES :
1. Partial Molar Properties
2. Chemical Potential
3. Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient
4. Estimation of Fugacity Coefficient for Pure Gases :
i. Fugacity Coefficient through Equation of State
ii. Fugacity Coefficient through Generalized Equations of State
iii. Fugacity Coefficient through Compressibility Factor Correlation
iv. Fugacity Coefficient through virial Coefficient Correlation

5. Thermodynamic Properties of Real Gas Mixtures :
i. Mixing Rules
ii. Prediction of P-v-T Properties of Real Gas Mixtures
iii. Prediction of Departure Functions for Real Gas Mixtures
iv. Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient for Real Gas Mixtures

6. Fugacity of a Component in a Mixture
7. Fugacity of Liquid and Solid
8. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

X. Stability and Phase Transition in Thermodynamic Systems :
1. Stability Criteria
2. Phase Transition in a Pure Substance
3. Gibbs Phase Rule
4. Vapor Pressure of a Pure Substance
5. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

XI. PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS :
1. Ideal Solution
2. Phase Equilibrium in Ideal Solutions
3. Phase Diagram for Ideal Solutions
4. Phase Equilibrium Problems
5. Excess Properties
6. Gibbs-Duhem Relation
7. Excess Gibbs Free Energy Models :
i. Margules Equation
ii. Redlich-Kister Equation
iii. Wohl's Equation
iv. Van Laar Equation
v. Wilson and NRTL Equations :
a. Wilson Equation
b. Non-random Two Liquid (NRTL) Equation

6. UNIversal QUAsi Chemical (UNIQUAC) Equation

8. Prediction of Activity Coefficients-Group Contribution Methods :
i. ASOG Method
ii. UNIquac Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) Method

9. Henry's Law
10. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

XII. VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM :
1. Basic Equation for vapor-liquid equilibrium
2. Reduction of VLE data
3. VLE at Low to Moderate Pressure-Excess Gibbs Free Energy Models
4. Azeotropic Data
5. VLE at High Pressures
6. Multicomponent Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
7. Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations
8. Thermodynamic Consistency Test of VLE Data
9. Descriptive Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium :
i. Retrograde Condensation
ii. VLE Diagrams for Binary Mixtures

10. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

XIII. DILUTE SOLUTION LAWS :
1. Nernst's Law
2. Lowering of Vapor Pressure
3. Depression of Freezing Point
4. Elevation of Boiling Point
5. Osmotic Pressure
6. Solubility of a Solid or Gas in a Liquid
7. Summary
Review Questions
Problems

XIV. CHEMICAL REACTION EQUILIBRIUM :
1. The Standard Gibbs Free Energy Change and Equilibrium Constant
2. Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium Constant
3. Homogeneous Gas Phase Reactions
4. Effect of Operating Conditions on Degree of Conversion at Equilibrium
5. Adiabatic Reaction Temperature
6. Equilibrium with Simultaneous Reactions
7. Homogeneous Liquid Phase Reactions
8. Heterogeneous Reactions
9. Summary
Review Questions
Problems







Friday, June 18, 2010

Engineering Courses in Sri Lanka

We have three government university and several private universities in Sri Lanka which provide engineering graduate and post graduate courses.

University of Moratuwa



Which is located in Katubedda is conducting several engineering courses including follows

  1. Chemical and Process Engineering
  2. Civil Engineering
  3. Mechanical Engineering
  4. Electrical Engineering 
  5. Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering
  6. Material Engineering
  7. Textile and Clothing Engineering
  8. Earth Resources and mining Engineering

University of Peradeniya

Conducting several engineering courses including follows



  1. Chemical and Process Engineering
  2. Civil Engineering
  3. Computer Engineering
  4. Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  5. Engineering Mathematics
  6. Mechanical Engineering
  7. Production Engineering


University of Ruhuna

Conducting several engineering courses including follows


1. Civil and Environmental Engineering
2. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
3. Electrical and Information Engineering

Faculty of Engineering University of Ruhuna

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Computational Fluid Dynamics by John Anderson


This is a pioneering text provides an excellent introduction to CFD at the senior level in aerospace and mechanical engineering, and to some extent, chemical and civil engineering. It can also serve as a one-semester introductory course at the beginning graduate level, as a useful precursor to a more serious study of CFD in advanced books. It is presented in a very readable, informal, enjoyable style. This book has been written by John D. Anderson, Jr. is the Curator of Aerodynamics at the National Air & Space Museum Smithsonian Institute and Professor Emeritus at the University of Maryland.

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Learn how to eliminate waste in ten areas of your manufacturing operation.

Lean processes aren't just for the plant floor anymore. Today, many manufacturers are applying lean principles to their warehouse, field sales and service, quality, logistics and other operations. Get tough on waste—get Motorola's Top 10 Mobility Solutions for Lean now.

And they're reaping significant rewards, including:

* Lower inventory costs
* Improved visibility and control
* Increased profit margins
* Higher plant yields
* Longer equipment life

Download

Ansys 12 tutorial


ANSYS 12 brings you innovative, dramatic simulation technology advances in every major physics discipline, along with improvements in computing speed and enhancements to enabling technologies such as geometry handling, meshing and post-processing.



Free Ansys 12 tutorial from university Alberta
Free Ansys 12 tutorial from Carnegie Mellon University

Saturday, June 12, 2010

We call Solution from chemical engineers for BP Oil Spill


As every one knows it is a major disaster to eco system and BP is also in trouble @ the movement. I created a group to have a online brainstorming to find a solution from experts and even from novice.

Log in to BP Oil Spill and make your discussion

Monday, June 7, 2010

Chemical Engineering at the University of Melbourne



Find out about the study and career options available in Chemical Engineering at the University of Melbourne.

Friday, June 4, 2010

High Speed Compressor design using computational fluid dynamics



computational fluid dynamics used to run multiple iterations of volute design on 15000 RPM high output air compressor using computational fluid design. Design comparison was key - showed better designs in a few days without prototypes.

This kind of simulation needs quite powerful computer. As example the person who created this simulation has used a 32bit XP workstation with a dual core 3.2 GHz processor and 3 GB (using unofficial 3 GB windows switch) of RAM.

According to the comments of the youtube video this model has two problems.

1. This radial turbine is backwards dumping the fluid in the counter-clockwise direction and then it want it to travel in a clock-wise direction - the air is being pushed in the wrong direction
2.The fluid is turning that huge corner and you have separation. The fast moving fluid is due to all the back-pressure rather than steady flow.
This  stator veins work because they redirect the air clockwise. Section-off this volute and flip this turbine.

Followers