Wednesday, December 26, 2007

Boiler Systems

Boilers have many applications in industrial sector and hotel industry mainly for comfort and process heating. Boiler system consists of pressure vessel, piping, valves, operation and safety controls and pollution controls such as economizers or super heaters. Mainly industrial and other large scale boilers use oil or gas as fuel. In Sri Lanka furnace fuel is widely used as boiler fuel. Coal is also used in many countries while electricity is also used.

There are three major classes of boilers according to its output

1. Hot water

2. Low Pressure Steam (0 – 15 psi)

3. High Pressure Steam (> 15 psi)

Boilers also can be divided into two major categories by installation procedure.

1. Field – Erected - the custom made boiler system which can be installed in very flexible and suitable way to our requirements.

Advantage – Less operation cost, less maintenance, greater flexibility

Disadvantage – High initial cost

2. Shop Assembled – packaged boiler system which has few categories ac cording to some standard sizes.

Advantages – low initial cost and simple installation

Disadvantages – high operating cost, more maintenance, less flexibility

According to heat transfer method there are two major types of boilers

  • Fire tube Boilers
  • Water Tube Boilers

Fire tube Boilers

This type is often used for hot water and low pressure steam applications. In this configuration combustion gas and fire flames are flow thro’ tubes while water and steam contained in a large shell surrounds them.


1. Compactness

2. Relatively Cheap


1. The output of the boiler is limited.

Water tube Boilers

In this type water flow thro’ tubes and tubes are heated from surrounding.


1. Large heating surface can be obtained

2. Heat transfer is efficient and high due to motion of water streams.


1. Scaling is highly occurred

2. More maintenance relatively to fire tube.

How to make Laughing Gas industrially?

Chemical name of the laughing gas is Nitrous Oxide and chemical formula is N2O. There are two methods to produce Nitrous Oxide in large scale. There are two main industrial processes to manufacture Nitrous Oxide.

1. Thermal Cracking of Ammonium Nitrate;

NH4NO3 à N2O + 2 H2O

2. Oxidation of Ammonia ;

2 NH4 + 2 O2 à N2O + 3 H2O

In Sri Lanka Ceylon Oxygen Ltd used Thermal Cracking of Ammonium Nitrate to manufacture Nitrous Oxide.

Nitrous Oxide is used in Medical field.

National Post Consumer Plastic waste management Project, Sri Lanka

To end up the massive pollution which causes because of polythene and plastic this project has been introduced. Now people can hand over their plastic and polythene to collectors and recyclers and they can obtain price for their waste.

Following list is contain address and contact no. of plastic and polythene recyclers & collectors.

plastic and polythene recyclers & collectors in district, Sri Lanka

Name of the company


Telephone No:

Contact person

Plas Techs (pvt) Ltd.

98/7, Hospital RD, Kalubowila, Dehiwala.



Mr. A. S. Illiyas

VIRIDIS (pvt) Ltd.

Block B, Temple Burg Industrial Zone, Homagama


Ms. Priyanwada Balachandran

Poly-Cycle (pvt) Ltd

124/5, Old Ambathale Road, Mulleriyawa, Angoda


Mr. George

Seth Sevana Padanama

No: 50, de Zoysa Rd, Rawathawaththa, Moratuwa.


Mr. P. L. R. Fernando

Hiden Packaging (pvt) Ltd.

No: 40, Uduwagewatta, Wethara, Polgasowita.


Mr. T. L. Chandrarathna

Eco Sans Plastics (pvt) Ltd.

No: 128, Gangarama Rd, Werahera, Boralesamuwa.


Mr. Anura Jasunthaliyana

plastic and polythene recyclers & collectors in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka

Name of the company


Telephone No:

Contact person

S. L. Plastic

442/2/A, Ahungama, Delgoda



Mr. N. Chandrasiri

Kalhari Enterprises

398 A, Gunasekara Mawatha, Heyyanthuduwa, Sapugaskanda.


Ms. Malithi Kahawala

Nature Care Sindicate

“Nidalla”, 3rd Lne, Kuruduwaththa, Ekala.


Mr. Manjula Sumanadasa

Mangala Electronics

265/1, Mabima, Heyiyanthuduw, Kelaniya.


Mr. S. A. P. M. Senarath

S. M. W. U. Plastic



Mr. J. N. Sanjeewa Silva

Ronesha Plymer Industries

102/1, W/Kaluwarippuwa, Katana.


Mr. R. M. Jayantha Kumarasiri

Polygun Poly recycling (pvt) Ltd

315, Negambo Rd, Wattala


Mr. W. D. Vijitha

Nawshad Plastic

375, Jumma Musjith Rd, Akbar Town, Wattala


Mr. Nawshad

plastic and polythene recyclers & collectors in other district (Kurunegala, Kandy), Sri Lanka

Name of the company


Telephone No:

Contact person

Poly Packaging Industries

197, Colombo Rd, Wanduragala, Kurunegala


Mr. S. M. A. G Perera

Silamna Pellet Manufactures

No: 05, Solman Rd, Wekada, Panadura


Mr. Sunil Gunasekara

Polykar PVC Industries

18, Dumburugiriya Rd, Hatton


Mr. P. Karthigesu

Kandy Plastics

Industrial State, Kundasale


Mr. A. G. P. Wickramarathna

Sanasuma Recycling Centre

Wagawaththa Junction, Poruwadana, Horana


Mr. B. D. Nishantha

This project is conducted by the Central Environment Authority which is under control of Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources, Sri Lanka. The hot line for details about this project is 077-3909090

New Year hope, Oil exploration

The Oil exploration in Sri Lankan Mannar Basin of west coast will commenced in Middle of nest year. (2008) The closing date for bids on 2,3 and 4 blocks of Mannar Basin is January 31st . The 1st block is already given to Indian government and rest will be given to the highest bids. Last week Sri Lankan Cabinet approval is issued to issue exploration blocks in Cauvery basin. The seismic data which was provided by the Norwegian firm confirm the potential of Oil and Gas resources in Mannar Basin.

Rotarix in Sri Lanka to combat Rotavirus

Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is an infection which affect children under 5 years and it accounts for up to 50 % the hospitalizations due to diarrhea. Rotarix is two-dose vaccine developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) biologicals which is one of leading vaccines manufacture in the world. Rotarix has launched in 61 countries and over 14 million of doses have been distributed.

Rotarix has shown up to 100 % protection of infants from Rotavirus gastroenteritis in clinical studies involving over 70,000 infants. In Europe the Rotarix has been approved to give infants form six weeks. Philippines, Singapore and Thailand were the first to approve this vaccine Asian region. 90% of deaths of children (total death in previous studies, 611,000 children/year) are occurred in Asian and African region due to Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This new introduction will save many deaths and even 94 % of hospitalizations.

Greenpeace force Gaming Giants to be green

Greenpeace organization has asked SONY, MicroSoft and Nintendo to make their consoles in environment and health friendly way. It accused these three giants for lagging behind on mobile industry and PC manufacturing with their toxic burden in their products.
The Greenpeace international toxic campaigner Zenia Al Hajj said “Game console manufactures are lagging way behind the makers of mobile phones and PC manufactures who have been reducing the toxic load of the products over past year, game consoles contain many of the same components as Personal Computers so manufacters can do a lot more”

A biomass power plant from Tokyo Cement Company (Lanka) Ltd.

A biomass power plant which is to be produced 10 MW from Paddy husks and glidiceria branches will come soon in Sri Lanka as cooperated social responsibility program of Tokyo Cement Company (Lanka) Ltd. The investment on this power plant is 14 million USDs and the 10 MW is more than adequate the electricity power requirements of Tokyo Cement plant in Trincomalee.
Green initiative is very important to Cement industries. Because 6 % of responsibility on global warming is on cement production process due to huge CO2 emission in production process. This figure is without emission from transportation of cement. So you can imagine the effect on environment from cement manufacturing industry.

Cement industry in Sri Lanka

The joint managing director of Tokyo Cement (lanka) Ltd said that this huge demand from China and some other Asian countries is the core reason for shortage of Cement in Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka consumed 4.1 million metric tones of cement (0.00164 % of world production) and 75 % of this demand was imported while 25 % was produce locally by companies such as Holcim Lanka Ltd. (It is a member of a multinational cement giant Holcim)

In Sri Lanka there are four kind of cement

OPC (ordinary Portland Cement) – 100 % cement and used for general construction and 70 % of world cement demand is fulfilled by OPC.

Blended Cement – This is new introduction to Cement industry aiming to reduce CO2 emission in production process. It is a blend of cement and pozzoolan. Pozzoolan is cementitious material such as volcanic ash, fly ash and blast furnace slag. This category is recommended for marine structures and buildings in costal and marshy areas.

Portland Limestone Cement – It is a diluted form of OPC. It contain 15 % of limestone filler and this limestone is added in grinding process

Masonry Cement – It is used for brick work and plastering. It makes easy workability and it is cost effective.

Asian Demand on Cement

The Olympics 2008 and Expo exhibition in 2010 has created massive demand on Cement in Asian region. The statics shows the total production of Cement in world as 2.5 billions metric tones. From this amount Asia has consumed 69 % while rest of world consumes 31 %. From 69 % Asian consumption china has consumed 47 %, India 7% and other countries 15 %.

Lanka Indian Oil Company waiting to market turbine fuel

Lanka Indian Oil Company waiting to market turbine fuel

Aviation turbine fuel which is an improved version of kerosene oil will gain high demand after Weerawila airport commence its operation and it is not very costly fuel. (It costs 100 LKR/lit). Lanka Indian Oil Company is waiting for approval from government to market aviation fuel. These days CEPETCO (Ceylon Petroleum Co-operation) is the monopoly to market aviation fuel. Before LIOC come to Sri Lanka CEPETCO was the monopoly for every fuel in Sri Lanka. But now there is duopoly in main fuel and lubricant market.

The managing director of LIOC K. Ramakrishnan said to Sunday observer that they are planning to set up an oil refinery in Trincomalee and waiting for approval from government. The proposed plant is to be set up on 50 acre land. Recently LIOC commenced the operation of its lube plant in Trincomalee. (Nov. 21) It was a 1.4 billion LKR investment.

LIOC is a company which has good turnover and every growing market share. It had 1.67 billion turnover for the period from April to September and it has 23 % share on petrol and diesel and 13 % share on lube oil.

Show them path and strength their hands, no spoon feeding

I recently came across with one of Janasarana program which was telecast on Swarnavahini. There were several donation programs of spectacles, wheel chairs, sawing machines etc. I appreciate that. These simple tools will power their life and show them new paths to sustain in their life. Actually this is the lord Buddha’s message to wealthy people. The poverty cycle is driven by lack of knowledge and capital to invest in their life. If wealthy people can donate their money to give them knowledge and capital for poor people their poverty cycle will end up.

But in Janasarana program there is only one side considered. They give dry food items, spectacles, wheel chairs, sawing machines etc to poor people. It is not the way to build a sustainable community. Rather than donating money for heart operation to one patient it is important to develop health facility in one of Sri Lankan central hospital and allowing thousand people to be benefited. Rather than donating sawing machines to several people it is important to build and strength community bank system in rural area which will power the rural people to get capital money as low interest loan schemes. It is very important to teach people on saving and money planning methods.

In Sri Lanka Government donate and sell fertilizer at low price while spending more money on that subsides. But it is not the wise solution. We can install fertilizer manufacturing plant to fulfill the overall demand and manufacture fertilizer in our country.

I think Sri Lankan government and privet sector have not properly identified the way to eliminate the poverty from Sri Lanka.

A Sinhalese village in Sri Lanka

This book which was written by Professor Victoria J. Baker is now has been translated into Sinhala language. “Suduwatura Ara Gama”, this book contains wonderful story about works of a social scientist (Victoria J. Baker is the scientist). She had chosen a countryside village in Monaragala District, which is called Suduwatura Ara Gama for her research on Sri Lankan education system in rural areas.

While she was doing her research she was not selfish to grab information and run away. But her books and her effort brings many great things to village. One of her book “The Black Board in the Jungle” got the attention of His Excellency president Ranasinghe Premadasa and he developed the village through his Gam Udawa program. The Suduwatura Ara Gama School got a library and many buildings because of her studies and effort. While she was doing her research she worked as a teacher, nurse, social worker, ambulance driver (her 4 WD jeep became the Ambulance in emergency), photographer (her camera was a vital resource for village children to protect their childhood memories) and a good friends.

This story is a must read for social scientist, politicians, social workers and NGO people. Because many people involve with social works for their benefits. It is not bad. But every effort must have mutual benefits. We must develop our self while making and allowing others to develop and sustain in this world.

Tuesday, December 25, 2007

Nanotechnology now for our industry

Ministry of Science and Technology is now ready to launch nano science project in Sri Lanka together with NANCO and SLINTEC. NANCO is a company which will own state of art nano-park in Homagama area and that nano park will be equipped with state-of-the-art laboratories to facilitate private sector companies and other interested research institutes.

Sri Lanka Institute of Nano Technology is a research institute which is a joint venture with privet sector and it is 5 billion LKR worth project. 50 % of the investment will be done by the privet sector. Main partners of this investment are MAS, Brandix, Jinasena, Dialog and SLT.

This project is headed by our own Sri Lankan professionals. Several Sri Lankan experts have been joined with this and some other will join near future. Prof. Gihan Amarathunga has already with this project. These people are very senior scientists in Nano Tech. As example Prof. Gihan Amarathunga is one of five consultative people to UK gov. on Nano Technology. Prof. Silva is presently attached to University of Surrey and he will join with this project in next January.

The researches will be focused on industries such as apparel, rubber, ceramic, chemical products (paints, activated carbon, mineral, herbal products)

This is first time government and privet sector joined hands to conduct such a massive joint effort on R&D. Nanotechnology is in its very beginning state and if we can step into that technology soon we will be benefited. We missed industrial revolution, electronic revolution, bio revolution and IT revolution. I wish all the best for this development effort. Please do not let to miss this technology too. Grab its maximum potential.

Tuesday, December 18, 2007

Many Happy returns "Weblog"

Yesterday "weblog" concept celebrate its 10th B'Day. The "Weblog" word is created by Jorn Barger to explain what he is doing with his Robot Wisdom web page. Weblog was initiated in 1997 December 17 and now there are more than 70 million weblog world wide. (According to Technorati ). Technorati also say there are 120000 blogs started every day into www world.

The journey of the blog was not an easy path. In 1998 there was only 28 Weblogs because of unavailability of proper platform. With Myspace, facebook, blogger, wordpress, blogsome, blogmas etc now there will be 17 post per every second. (1.5 million post per day)

Monday, December 17, 2007

Biofuel Supercar

Feel the power of bio fuel.

The burning of ethanol in biofuel has the positive side effect of cooling the combustion chambers. This combined with a higher octane rating provides the enviro-friendly supercar with 1,018hp at 7,200rpm and peak torque of 1,060Nm at 6,100rpm

More info


A design of Development -

EMTDs (emergency medical transportation devices) are consists of wide range of equipment which can be cost millions. But Bambulace is new innovation which help poor community to equip with their own EMTD at minimum cost.

Bambulance enables rural and urban communities in developing countries to transport poeple in need of medical attention to a hospital nearby. Bambulance also creates work opportunity due to local manufacturing.

More info

Video on Design process of Bambulance

world’s first pedal-powered human electric hybrid car - Twike

A good alternative for non-renewable fossil fuel powered vehicles. This car can get up to speeds of 15-45 mph, with a 5 speed electric motor.

More info

Tuesday, December 11, 2007

Dialog Recycling effort (m-waste managment)

Sri Lanka Dialog Telekom initiate the sri lanka first ever mobile waste management program. They retrieved old mobile phones and batteries and send them for recycling. The fund which is rising by this project will go for TOY-JOY project which is to distribute toys among poor children in Sri Lanka.

This is good effort while electronic waste becoming significant pollutants in Sri Lanka. This is another CSR (cooperate social responsibility) project and a green effort of Dialog.

Read full detail

According to facts 25000 people in world die every day of hunger or hunger-related causes. The is web site for give awareness of this great tragedy. It updates a list of hunger deaths of every our. According to their facts most of victims of hunger is children. In the front page of the web site there is a world map and they pop up photograph of dying people because of hunger. This is a web site which you must visit and read information with good attention. And we must do something against this tragedy.

Hotel Rwanda

The film made very great sense for all of us. This film is about one of greatest human made tragedy in ever known history which happened in Rwanda in 1994. The film made my views change on our ethnic conflict but this film shown as continuous assessment in total quality environment management subject. So while taking the humanitarian values which we must develop our self to not allow to happen this kind of tragedy again in world I will describe my views on this film.

The story behind the tragedy is not a new concept for us. From the very first scene the producer, Terry George tried to entitle the corruption of the government bodies and the strategies of business people to grab huge profit by making conflicts. The RTML radio station which helped to breed seeds of conflict among the people is not a strange experience to Sri Lankan. Irresponsible behavior of military, politician, public media and majority of the society was entitled as the root causes for this massacre.

The film shows how Paul Rusesabagina managed his political position, social skills, wealth and quick wit to rescue thousands of lives from this tragic genocide. Until the problem became its worst state Paul Rusesabagina was successful to manage his supply chain to hotel. Although he could not manage some of the people of staff he played a great management role with ethnically diversified staff and nationally diversified guest.

He played sustainable management role behalf of the hotel. In that great human made tragedy he happened to convert some parts of the hotel to refugee camp, but anyhow he worked hard to make a better environment for his guest. Keeping records of guests in the hotel is very good practice. But in that crisis this good practice had to be changed to protect people against people. He took quick decision to erase all the record but he did not forget to make a way to ensure the income of the hotel.

While he was playing his managerial role in his hotel he did lot of care to his family. He did his best protect his children and wife. The main problem is wife belong to Tutsi which was being genocided in that time. Finally he was able to take hundreds of people to a safe place.

“We cannot all do great things, but we can do small things with great love.”

- Mother Teresa

Monday, December 10, 2007

Final Year Project Presentations

Today our team, Sampath, Dilshan, Bathiya, Sripragas and I did our project presentation. Our project coordinator Dr. Jagath Premachandra , Dr. A. D. U. S. Amarasinghe and Dr. Shantha Walpolage was our appraisal team. Dr. Amarasinghe and Dr. Walpolage highly appreciate our team work effort. Actually our team consists of one Tamil and other Muslim student. But we worked together as a family to success in our project.

Our project is to design a biodegradable polymer using cassava starch. We did literature survey on the basic facts, design the process, did the mass balance and energy balance and did the presentation on gathered information.

Dr. Shantha Walpolage asked me that do we have enough confidence to implement the designed process to an actually a running plant. I explained him demand for biodegradable polymer in present day market and if we have an investor we like to start the process actually.

I have to specially mention about Dr. Shantha Amarasinghe. Before two years ago he found my weakness in communicating in English in one of our interview and he gave me proper advice to improve my communication skills and he also kind enough to arrange a program in his English department. I followed his advices and there was very effective improvement in my communication skills.

This is the uniqueness of our department. The relationship between academic staff and the student are very close. Although there is counselor in our university to help our problem our department students have so many friendly staff to discuss problem even though the matters are academic or personal. In one occasion one of my friends was get into a big personal problem and he was going to forget the exams also. But the staff including Dr. Premachandra (who is very friendly with students) did lot of counseling on him and finally he successfully did the exam.

I think this positive environment is made because of IRQUE project which help to do lot of team building functions. The IRQUE projects changed our learning environment in to very much technological advancement and it also led our department to build up good interrelationship.
Thanks everyone including IRQUE.